|Language family:|| Torgyrian|
|Writing system:||Shár script, Sak alphabet|
The Sak langauge is the second branch of the Limjiang language family besides Shár. It is currently official in the six Sak states - Ryung, Shit, Räl, Gyô, and Mô - which are all vassals of the Shár Empire.
Syllable structure Edit
- All syllables must have a vowel within it.
- Initial consonants are optional. No syllable may start with the glottal stop /ʔ/.
- Optionally, a syllable may also have a glide /j/ or /w/ in it.
- Medial /w/ may only exist after /kʰ k h/, and these combinations coalesce into [kʷʰ kʷ~gʷ f]
- Medial /j/ may not exist after /tʰ t sʰ s t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ ʃʰ/ - historically, /tʰj tj sʰj/ merged with /t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ ʃʰ/, while /sj/ never existed in native Sak vocabulary.
- /kʰ k h/ + /j/ coalesce into [kʲʰ kʲ~gʲ ç]
- A syllable may optionally end with a consonant /l m n ŋ p t k ʔ/.
- Coda consonants may not follow long vowels, as those came from historical diphthongs or a now-lost coda /s/ - /ɛː ɔː/ came from /æi̯ ɑu̯/ and /æs ɑs/, /eː oː/ came from /ei̯ ou̯/ and /es os/, /iː ɨː uː/ came from /is ɨs us/.
|Nasal||<m> /m/||<n> /n/||<ng> /ŋ/|
|Stop||Aspirate||<p> /pʰ/||<t> /tʰ/||<ch> /t͡ʃʰ/||<k> /kʰ/|
|Plain||<b> /p~b/||<d> /t~d/||<j> /t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ/||<g> /k~g/||<'> /ʔ/|
|Fricative||Aspirate||<s'> /sʰ/||<sh> /ʃʰ/||<h> /h/|
|Plain||<f> /f/||<s> /s~z/||<y> /j~ʝ/|
|Liquid||<r, l> /r~ɾ~l/||<w> /w/|
- /r/ and /l/ are not separate phonemes but allophones of the same phoneme: the liquid phoneme /r~ɾ~l/ is pronounced as a flap [ɾ] in the syllable onset, a lateral approximant [l] in the syllable coda. Many male speakers also use the trilled [r], especially in aggressive speech and cursing.
- The lateral /l/ tends to be heavily velarized [ł].
- When a syllable ends with /l/ and the following syllable begins with /r/, the combination may be pronounced either [łː] or [rː], depending on speaker preference.
- Out of all the consonants, only /l m n ŋ p t k ʔ/ may appear in the syllable coda.
- The unaspirated /p t t͡ʃ k s/ become voiced [b d d͡ʒ g z] medially.
- The combination of /kʰ k/ with /j/ and /w/ coalesce into palato-velar [kʲʰ kʲ~gʲ] and labio-velar [kʷʰ kʷ~gʷ] stops.
- The combination of /h/ with /j/ and /w/ coalesce into dorso-palatal [ç] and labiodental [f] fricatives.
- The coda-position stops /p t k/ are phonologically unaspirated, and become voiced [b d g] when followed by a syllable that starts with a vowel, nasal or unaspirated stop (which also becomes voiced).
- The coda stop /t/ becomes [d͡ʒ] when the following syllable starts with /j/.
|Close||Long||<ii> /iː/||<ıı> /ɨː~ɯ̈ː/||<uu> /uː/|
|Short||<i> /i/||<ı> /ɨ~ɯ̈/||<u> /u/|
|Mid||Long||<ei> /eː/||<ou> /oː/|
|Short||<e> /e̞/||<o> /o̞/|
|Open||Long||<ê> /ɛː/||<ô> /ʌ̜ː~ɔː/|
|Short||<ä> /æ/||<a> /ɑ/|
- The long near-open back vowel /ʌ̜ː~ɔː/ is often not fully rounded.
- In Southern Sak, it is pronounced as a fully rounded [ɔː].
- In Northeastern Sak, it is pronounced as a compressed [ʌᵝː].
- In Northwestern Sak, it is pronounced as a weakly rounded [ʌ̜ː].