Language: English

Total speakers:
Language family: Torgyrian
Writing system: Shár script, Sak alphabet

Template:Infobox Language/IPA notice

The Sak langauge is the second branch of the Limjiang language family besides Shár. It is currently official in the six Sak states - Ryung, Shit, Räl, Gyô, and - which are all vassals of the Shár Empire.

Phonology Edit

Syllable structure Edit

  • All syllables must have a vowel within it.
  • Initial consonants are optional. No syllable may start with the glottal stop /ʔ/.
  • Optionally, a syllable may also have a glide /j/ or /w/ in it.
    • Medial /w/ may only exist after /kʰ k h/, and these combinations coalesce into [kʷʰ kʷ~gʷ f]
    • Medial /j/ may not exist after /tʰ t sʰ s t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ ʃʰ/ - historically, /tʰj tj sʰj/ merged with /t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ ʃʰ/, while /sj/ never existed in native Sak vocabulary.
    • /kʰ k h/ + /j/ coalesce into [kʲʰ kʲ~gʲ ç]
  • A syllable may optionally end with a consonant /l m n ŋ p t k ʔ/.
    • Coda consonants may not follow long vowels, as those came from historical diphthongs or a now-lost coda /s/ - /ɛː ɔː/ came from /æi̯ ɑu̯/ and /æs ɑs/, /eː oː/ came from /ei̯ ou̯/ and /es os/, /iː ɨː uː/ came from /is ɨs us/.

Consonants Edit

Labial Dental Palatal Velar Glotal
Nasal <m> /m/ <n> /n/ <ng> /ŋ/
Stop Aspirate <p> /pʰ/ <t> /tʰ/ <ch> /t͡ʃʰ/ <k> /kʰ/
Plain <b> /p~b/ <d> /t~d/ <j> /t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ/ <g> /k~g/ <'> /ʔ/
Fricative Aspirate <s'> /sʰ/ <sh> /ʃʰ/ <h> /h/
Plain <f> /f/ <s> /s~z/ <y> /j~ʝ/
Liquid <r, l> /r~ɾ~l/ <w> /w/
  • /r/ and /l/ are not separate phonemes but allophones of the same phoneme: the liquid phoneme /r~ɾ~l/ is pronounced as a flap [ɾ] in the syllable onset, a lateral approximant [l] in the syllable coda. Many male speakers also use the trilled [r], especially in aggressive speech and cursing.
    • The lateral /l/ tends to be heavily velarized [ł].
    • When a syllable ends with /l/ and the following syllable begins with /r/, the combination may be pronounced either [łː] or [rː], depending on speaker preference.
  • Out of all the consonants, only /l m n ŋ p t k ʔ/ may appear in the syllable coda.
  • The unaspirated /p t t͡ʃ k s/ become voiced [b d d͡ʒ g z] medially.
  • The combination of /kʰ k/ with /j/ and /w/ coalesce into palato-velar [kʲʰ kʲ~gʲ] and labio-velar [kʷʰ kʷ~gʷ] stops.
  • The combination of /h/ with /j/ and /w/ coalesce into dorso-palatal [ç] and labiodental [f] fricatives.
  • The coda-position stops /p t k/ are phonologically unaspirated, and become voiced [b d g] when followed by a syllable that starts with a vowel, nasal or unaspirated stop (which also becomes voiced).
    • The coda stop /t/ becomes [d͡ʒ] when the following syllable starts with /j/.

Vowels Edit

Front Central Back
Close Long <ii> /iː/ <ıı> /ɨː~ɯ̈ː/ <uu> /uː/
Short <i> /i/ <ı> /ɨ~ɯ̈/ <u> /u/
Mid Long <ei> /eː/ <ou> /oː/
Short <e> /e̞/ <o> /o̞/
Open Long <ê> /ɛː/ <ô> /ʌ̜ː~ɔː/
Short <ä> /æ/ <a> /ɑ/
  • The long near-open back vowel /ʌ̜ː~ɔː/ is often not fully rounded.
    • In Southern Sak, it is pronounced as a fully rounded [ɔː].
    • In Northeastern Sak, it is pronounced as a compressed [ʌᵝː].
    • In Northwestern Sak, it is pronounced as a weakly rounded [ʌ̜ː].

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