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Old Shár
Extinction: split into various Shár languages around 100 AEKE
Language family: Torgyrian
 Limjiang
  Old Shár 
Writing system: Shár script

Template:Infobox Language/IPA notice

Old Shár was the stage of the Shár language between 3500 BEKE and around 100 AEKE.

Evolution from Proto-Limjiang Edit

Phonology Edit

Syllable structure Edit

In Old Shár, a syllable normally consisted of:

  • (Optionally) An initial consonant, or a consonant + glide cluster.
    • The velar glide /w/ could only exist after the velar consonants /kʰ k x ɣ/
    • The palatal glide /j/ could exist after any consonant
  • (Mandatory) A vowel
  • (Optionally) A final glide /j w/ or a coda-consonant /m n ŋ p t k ʔ s ɻ/

Initials Edit

Initials in Early Old Shár (3500-800 BEKE)
Labial Dental Postalveolar Palatal Velar
Plain Sibilant Plain Sibilant
Nasal <m> [m] <n> [n] <ng> [ŋ]
Stop Plain <p>[p] <t> [t] <tr> [tɹ~ʈɻ] <k> [k]
Aspirated <ph> [pʰ] <th> [tʰ] <c> [t͡sʰ] <cr> [t͡ʃʰ~ʈ͡ʂʰ] <ch> [t͡ɕʰ] <kh> [kʰ]
Voiced <b> [b] <d> [d] <z> [d͡z] <dr> [dɹ~ɖɻ] <j> [d͡ʑ]
Fricative Plain <f> [ɸ] <s> [s] <sh> [ɕ] <h> [x]
Voiced <v> [β] <g> [ɣ]
Approximant <l> [l] <r> [r~ɹ~ɻ] <y> [j] <w> [w]
  • The actual status of /r/ is unknown. It could have been an alveolar trill [r], alveolar approximant [ɹ] or retroflex approximant [ɻ] like in most current variants of Shár. Most likely, it was a trill in an early stage of the language, but became an approximant later.
  • The voiced fricative /β/ was probably much more approximant-like, as it later on merged with /w/
  • /ɸ/ was bilabial. It later became a labiodental [f].

Between Early Old Shár and Late Old Shár, various initials have changed:

  • Voiced and unaspirated voiceless stops merged, yielding one unaspirated series that is voiceless initially, voiced medially.
    • At the time, medial /k/ was still a voiceless [k]. It gained the intervocalic voicing only after the Old Shár period has ended.
  • The postalveolar series /t͡ʃʰ tɹ dɹ/ and palatal series /t͡ɕʰ d͡ʑ/ merged, yielding a new shibilant affricate series /t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ/
    • /ɕ/ became /ʃ/
  • /β/ merged with /w/
    • /βj/ became /ɣj/ instead
  • /ɸ/ became /f/
Initials in Late Old Shár (800 BEKE - 100 AEKE)
- Labial Dental Postalveolar Dorsal
Plain Sibilant
Nasal <m> [m] <n> [n] <ng> [ŋ]
Stop Plain <b> [p~b] <d> [t~d] <z> [t͡s~d͡z] <j> [t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ] <k> [k]
Aspirated <p> [pʰ] <t> [tʰ] <c> [t͡sʰ] <ch> [t͡ʃʰ] <kh> [kʰ]
Fricative Plain <f> [f] <s> [s] <sh> [ʃ] <h> [x]
Voiced <g> [ɣ]
Approximant <w> [w] <l> [l] <r> [ɻ] <y> [j]

Finals Edit

In Old Shár, every final consisted of a vowel (chart below), and optionally a glide /j w/ or a coda-consonant /m n ŋ p t k ʔ s ɻ/. After the Old Shár period ended, the finals /ʔ s/ became tones, for example, /iʔ is/ became [i˩˥ i˥˩].

Old Shár vowels
Front Central Back
Close <i> [i] <ï> [ɨ] <u> [u]
Mid <e> [e] <ë> [ə] <o> [o]
Open <ä> [æ] <a> [ɑ]

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