Language: English

Middle Etrandish
Extinction: evolved into Current Etrandish around 600 AEKE
Keldorni Etrandish split off around 150 AEKE.
Language family: Torgyrian
   Middle Etrandish 
Writing system: High Elven

Template:Infobox Language/IPA notice

Middle Etrandish was a stage of the Etrandish language from 0 BEKE/AEKE to 600 AEKE.

Middle Etrandish had marked differences from Old Etrandish, in multiple respects. The birth of the Kingdom of Etrand coincided with a great vowel shift that rendered it mutually unintelligible from its predecessor (although it is likely that the vowel shift was not so sudden, and more like a gradual shift happening between 200 BEKE and 100 AEKE).

In addition to internal changes, the language also received a heavy dose of exposure to influence from Middle High Elven - the latter have even contributed four new consonant phonemes to the language, /t͡s/, /ɲ/, /ʎ/ and /gʷ/ and its writing system. Due to the religious changes, a large amount of Classical High Elven loanwords entered the Etrandish language.

It is important to note that neither Middle Etrandish nor its predecessor Old Etrandish were in no way a unified monolithic languages, but both had a variety of dialects.

Evolution from Old Etrandish Edit

Consonants Edit

  • The voiceless sonorants /m̥ n̥ l̥/ merge with their voiced counterparts /m n l/. /r̥ ʍ/ are preserved, but only word-initially: medial /r̥ ʍ/ become /r w/.
  • The syllabic consonants /m̩ n̩ ŋ̩ l̩ r̩/ dissimilate to /um ɛn ɔŋ ər ɛl/
    • Word-initial /l̩ r̩/ dissimilate /li ri/ instead.
    • The dissimilation of the syllabic consonants happened gradually, and not all of them dissimilated at once. The dissimilation of word-initial /l̩ r̩/ to /li ri/ happened the earliest, already ongoing in Late Old Etrandish, fully complete by early Middle Etrandish. The non-coronal /m̩ n̩/ dissimilated to /um ɔŋ/ relatively early as well, already evident in spellings as early as the reign of King Corlagon I of Etrand. The dissimilation of /l̩ r̩/ to /ər ɛl/ can be dated to around 50-100 AEKE, while the dissimilation of /n̩/ to /ɛn/ happened the latest: as late as 150-200 AEKE, evidenced by the respelling of Etrandn RéctEtrandn Réct」 to Etranden RéctEtranden Réct」 from 212.
  • Four new consonants are introduced to the language via loanwords from High Elven: /t͡s/, /ɲ/, /ʎ/ and /gʷ/
  • Due to exposure to High Elven, the voiced labiodental fricative /v/ has become a phoneme on its own, previously having been only the intervocalic allophone of /f/

Vowels Edit

  • "Close vowel synthesis"
    • /CuCu/ -> /CoːC/
    • /CiCi/ -> /CeːC/
  • /ɑː/ becomes /aː/, except before /r l/
    • /ɑːr/ and /ɑːl/ become /ɒːl/ and /ɒːl/
  • /ɑr/ and /ɑl/ become /ɒr/ and /ɒl/
  • Merger of /æː/ and /æi/ as [ɐi̯]
  • Shift of /æ/ to /ɛ/, except before /r l/
    • /ær æl/ became /ɒr ɒl/
  • Shift of /e/ to /ɛ/, except before /r/
    • /er/ became /ər/
    • /eː/ remains /eː/
  • Shift of /ø/ to /œ/, except before /r/
    • /ør/ became /ər/
    • /øː/ remains /øː/
  • /o/ gets lowered to /ɔ/, while /oː/ remains /oː/
  • Diphthong simplifications:
    • /yːi̯/ and /yi̯/ merge as /yː/
    • /eːi̯/ and /ei̯/ merge as /ei̯/
    • /ui̯/ becomes /ʊi̯/
    • /øːi̯/ and /øi̯/ merge as /øi̯/
    • /oːu̯/ and /ou̯/ merge as /ɔu̯/
    • /æːi̯/, /æi̯/ and /æː/ merge as /ɐi̯/
    • /ɑːu̯/ and /ɑu̯/ merge as /ɐu̯/

Consonants Edit

Labial Dental Palatal Velar
Plain Sibilant Plain Labialized
Nasal m n (ɲ) ŋ
Stop Voiceless p t (t͡s) t͡ʃ k
Voiced b d d͡ʒ g (gʷ)
Fricative Voiceless f θ s ʃ h~x~ç
Voiced v ð z
Approximant l j (ʎ) w ʍ
Rhotic r* r̥*
  • [x] and [ç] were coda-position allophones of /h/ after back/central and front vowels respectively.
  • /t͡s/, /ɲ/, /ʎ/ and /gʷ/ were not native phonemes to Etrandish - they were introduced from High Elven loanwords - so monolingual speakers probably mispronounced them
    • /ɲ/ was most likely mispronounced as /nj/
    • /ʎ/ was most likely mispronounced as /j/ or /lj/ even in educated speech
    • /t͡s/ was probably deaffricated to /s/ in uneducated speech
  • The voiceless /r̥/ was a relic from Old Etrandish that was already under the process of being merged with the voiced /r/ in all environments. By the end of the Middle Etrandish period, it has completely merged with /r/, and remained only in the spellings of a few family names and personal names.
  • /r/ was realized in multiple ways, depending on the envorniment:
    • Apico-alveolar trill [r̺] word-initially and when geminated
    • Post-velar (optionally raised) trill [ʀ̟~ʀ̟̝] after /k/ and /g/
    • Apico-alveolar/retroflex flap [ɾ̺~ɽ] medially when not geminated
    • Velarized alveolar/retroflex approximant [ɹˠ~ɻ] in the syllable coda
  • /ng/ coalesced into /ŋ/ around 300 AEKE
  • It is rather unlikely that voiceless stops and affricates were already aspirated at this point.

Vowels Edit

Monophthongs Edit

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close Long
Short i~ɪ y~ʏ u~ʊ
Mid Long eː (ɛː) øː oː (ɔː)
Short ɛ œ ə ɔ
Open Long (ɒː)
Short ɑ (ɒ)
  • [ɒ] and [ɒː] were allophones of /ɑ/ and /aː/ before /r/ and /l/.
  • The diphthongs /ɐu̯/ and /ɐi̯/ monphthongized to /ɔː/ and /ɛː/ before /r/ and /l/ around 200 AEKE.
  • /i/, /y/ and /u/ laxed to /ɪ/, /ʏ/, and /ʊ/ around 350 AEKE.

Diphthongs Edit

Fronted Backed
Close (ui̯)
Mid ei̯ øi̯ (ɔi̯) ɔu̯
Open ɐi̯ ɐu̯
  • The dipththongs /ui̯/ and /ɔi̯/ were not native to Etrandish - they were from loanwords from either High Elven or Wood Elven
  • The Wood Elven loanwords were loaned to Old Etrandish, so they could be considered nativized.
  • The diphthongs /ɐu̯/ and /ɐi̯/ monphthongized to /ɔː/ and /ɛː/ before /r/ and /l/ around 200 AEKE.