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Language: English


Late Hulran
Extinction: evolved into Etrancoasti some time after 274 AEKE, probably around 400 AEKE
Language family: Torgyrian
 Elven
  Human
   Late Hulran 
Writing system: Runic

Template:Infobox Language/IPA notice

Late Hulran was the final stage during the independent evolution of the Hulran language. Spoken in the the Kingdom of Hulra during the end of its lifespan, it represented the last stage of the language that was still overwhelmingly free of foreign influences, ultimately the last Human language overwhelmingly free of external influences that post-date the evolution from Proto-Elven to Proto-Human.

After the fall of Hulra in 274, the language came under Etrandish influence, which meant that thousands of words from Middle Etrandish and Eccelestial High Elven (and Middle High Elven indirectly via Middle Etrandish) entered the Hulran/Etrancoasti language, accelerating the shift from Late Hulran to Current Etrancoasti.

Evolution from Classical Hulran Edit

Consonants Edit

  • Phonemic distinction between voiceless /f θ/ and voiced fricatives /v ð/ emerges
    • The voiced fricatives /v ð ɣ/ become closer to approximants in articulation
  • Voiced stops and fricatives got devoiced word-finally
  • Second Rhotacism: /z/ and /ʑ/ to /r/
  • Voicing distinction between stops is replaced with aspiration distinction
    • Voiceless stops /p t t͡ɕ k kʷ/ become aspirated /pʰ tʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ kʷʰ/ (except in the syllable coda, where they became unreleased)
    • Formerly voiced stops /b d d͡ʑ/ became unaspirated /p t t͡ʃ/, realized as voiceless [p t t͡ʃ] word-initially, voiced [b d d͡ʒ] medially.
  • The alveolo-palatal /tɕ dʑ ɕ/ became palato-alveolar [t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ ʃ]
  • Geminated consonants lost their gemination word-finally

Vowels Edit

  • /æ æː/ became /e ɛː/
  • /ɒ ɒː/ became /o ɔː/
  • The short /u/ became /o/, /ui̯/ became /oi̯/
  • Length distinction was replaced by tenseness distinction for close vowels:
    • the short /i y/ became laxed /ɪ ʏ/
    • The long /iː yː/ became tense /i y/, realized as long [iː yː] in open syllables (except word-finally), short otherwise.
  • The lowering diphthongs /ie̯ uo̯/ became centralizing /iə̯ uə̯/

Consonants Edit

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Plain Labial
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop Aspirated t͡ʃʰ kʷʰ
Plain p~b t~d t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ (k~g) (kʷ~gʷ)
Fricative Voiceless f θ s ʃ h~x
Voiced v~ʋ ð ɣ~ɰ
Approximant l j w
Flap/Trill r~ɾ
  • The unaspirated /k~g/ and /kʷ~gʷ/ appeared only in loanwords.

Vowels Edit

Monophthongs Edit

Front Central Back
Close Tense i~iː y~yː (u~uː)
Lax ɪ ʏ (ʊ)
Mid Long eː ɛː øː oː ɔː
Short e ø ə o
Open ɑ
  • The main distinction between the tense /i y/ and the lax /ɪ ʏ/ was vowel quality, not length
    • The tense vowels /i y/ were pronounced as long [iː yː] in open syllables (except word-finally), short [i y] otherwise.
    • Lax vowels never occurred word-finally. Word-final close vowels were always tense.
  • The vowels /ʊ/ and /u/ were only found in foreign words, and weren't distinguished from /o/ and /y/ in writing.
    • Most likely, they also were pronounced as such. /ʊ/ as [o̞], /u/ as [y~yː].
  • The long vowel /eː/ and the diphthong /ei̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.
  • The long vowel /oː/ and the diphthong /ou̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.

Diphthongs Edit

Fronted Centralized Backed
iə̯ uə̯ iu̯
ei̯ oi̯ ou̯
  • The long vowel /eː/ and the diphthong /ei̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.
  • The long vowel /oː/ and the diphthong /ou̯/ were only distinct in careful and formal speech. It was up to speaker preference whether to use the long vowel or the diphthong.

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