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Language: English


Runic
Extinction: official use ceased after 274 AEKE
Parent systems: Elven
 Runic
 
Language: Proto-Human
Old Etrandish
Old Hulran
Late Hulran

Template:Infobox Language/IPA notice

The Runic alphabet was the primarily writing system for the writing of earlier Human languages.

Although its origins are unknown, they are most definetely tied to that of the Early High Elven alphabet, as most letters standing for the same sound have the exact same meaning.

Proto-Human Edit

The most primitive variant of the Runic alphabet, it was lacking in many features - there was no space or interpunct, long and short vowels weren't distinguished, close vowels and semivowels weren't dinstinguished, leading to several confusions...

  • 「iu」 have stood for /juː/, /ju/ and /iu̯/
  • 「ui」 have stood for /wiː/, /wi/ and /ui̯/

This meant that several minimal pairs weren't even distingusihed at all in writing. Sometimes, vowels weren't even written out at all to begin with, /kirɑz/ being written as 「krz」.

Name Value
Image Meaning Romanization Pronounciation Romanization Pronounciations
Maffaz house maffaz /mɑɸːɑz̺/ m /m/
Pekwaz sword pekwaz /pekʷɑz̺/ p /p/
Baugwaz horse baugwaz /bɑuɣʷɑz̺/ b /b/, /β/
Farránaz window farránaz /ɸɑr̺ːɑːn̪ɑz̺/ f /ɸ/
Naraz cat naraz /n̪ɑr̺ɑz̺/ n /n̪/
Tsélta 2 wheel tsélta /t̪͡s̪ɛːl̪t̪ɑ/ ts /t̪͡s̪/
Dzaffa wing dzaffa /d̪͡z̪ɑɸːɑ/ dz /d̪͡z̪/
Thantaz snake thantaz /θɑn̪t̪ɑz̺/ th /θ/
Liffa eye liffa /l̪iɸːɑ/ l /l̪/
Tagaz mouth tagaz /t̪ɑɣɑz̺/ t /t̪/
Diraz teeth diraz /d̪ir̺ɑz̺/ d /d̪/, /ð/
Sarkaz sign sarkaz /s̺ɑr̺kɑz̺/ s /s̺/
Zórkaz shield zórkaz /z̺ór̺kɑz̺/ z /z̺/
Rámaz knife rámaz /r̺ɑːmɑz̺/ r /r̺/
Yilnaz grass yilnaz /jil̪n̪ɑz̺/ y/i /i/, /iː/, /j/
Karranthaz eagle karranthaz /kɑr̺ːɑθɑz̺/ k /k/
Gataz armour gataz /ɣɑt̪ɑz̺/ g /ɣ/, /g/
Herraz water herraz /xer̺ːɑz̺/ h /x/
Angaz arrow angaz /ɑŋgɑz̺/ a /ɑ/, /ɑː/
Wuntaz sea wuntaz /wun̪t̪ɑz̺/ w/u /u/, /uː/, /w/, /Cʷ/
Enermaz beast enermaz /en̪er̺mɑz̺/ e /e/, /eː/, /ɛː/
Óranta 2 well óranta /ɔːr̺ɑn̪t̪ɑ/ o /ɔː/

Old Etrandish Edit

Etrand before Corlagon was a land of illiteracy, and this is also respected in their crude writing - the various innovations that improved writing in Hulra (word-separating interpunct, vowel length distinction, vowel-semivowel distinction) did not spread to Etrand, which coincided with the fact that written records remained very sparse.

Therefore, just like in Proto-Human, no distinction was made between /i/ and /j/, /u/ and /w/ in writing, there was no spacing, and no distinction between short and long vowels. To make matters worse, now several letters represented multiple sounds, and obsolete combinations were still used, for example:

  • both /k/ and /t͡ʃ/ written as 「c」. Usually, /t͡ʃ/ was written as「ce」or 「ci」 before back vowels, but not always.
  • /g ɣ d͡ʒ/ were all written as「g」, which was also used for /j/ in several environments.
    • Usually, /d͡ʒ j/ were written as「ge」or 「gi」 before back vowels, but not always.
    • /d͡ʒ/ was also written as「cg」, 「dg」 or「gg」medially, to better distinguish from /j/
  • The fronted /æ ø y/ were usually not distinguished from /ɑ o u/
  • 「ai」was used for /ɑː/, even though it was no longer a dipthhong
  • Even though separate letters did exist for /e/ and /o/, they were sometimes written as 「i」 and 「u」 instead of 「e」 and 「o」.

The digraph 「sc」 was used for /ʃ/

- Name Value
Image Meaning Romanization Pronounciation Romanization Pronounciations
Maffaz house maff /mɑff/ m /m/
Pekwaz sword pöc /pøk/ p /p/
Baugwaz horse bówa /boːwɑ/ b /b/
Farránaz window færrán /fær̺ːɑːn̪/ f /f/, /v/
Naraz cat nær /n̪ær̺/ n /n/
Thantaz snake thant /θɑn̪t̪/ th /θ/, /ð/
Liffa eye leff /l̪efː/ l /l/
Tagaz mouth tæg /t̪æj/ t /t/
Diraz teeth der /d̪er̺/ d /d/
Sarkaz sign særc /s̺ær̺k/ s /s/, /ʃ/
Dzaffa wing zæff /zæfː/ d /z/
Rámaz knife ræm /r̺æːm/ r /r/
Yilnaz grass yeln /jel̪n̪/ y, i /i/, /iː/, /j/
Karranthaz eagle cærrath /t͡ʃær̺ːɑθ/ c /k/, /t͡ʃ/
Gataz armour gæt /gæt̪/ g /g/, /d͡ʒ/, /ɣ/, /j/
Herraz water herr /her̺ː/ h /h/, /x/
Angaz arrow ang /ɑŋg/ a, æ /ɑ/, /ɑː/, /æ/, /æː/
Wuntaz sea wont /won̪t̪/ w, u, ü /u/, /uː/, /y/, /yː/, /w/, /Cʷ/
Enermaz beast enerm /en̪er̺m/ e /e/, /eː/
Óranta 2 well órant /oːr̺ɑn̪t̪/ o, ö /o/, /oː/, /ø/, /øː/

Old Hulran Edit

Around 800, the people of Hulra have introduced several innovations that have helped to improve their writing system:

  • Distinction between close vowels and semivowels in writing
  • Vowel length distinction by doubling letters for long vowels
  • Usage of interpunct to separate words

The palatal /t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ/ did not have dedicated letters - they were represented by the digraphs 「tj dj sj」.

The diphthongs /ie̯ uo̯/ were written 「ie uo」.

Name Value
Image Meaning Romanization Pronounciation Romanization Pronounciations
Maffaz house mafr /mɑfr̺/ m /m/
Pekwaz sword pökr /pøkr̺/ p /p/
Baugwaz horse bougr /bouɣr̺/ b /b/
Farránaz window farránr /fɑr̺ːɑːn̪r̺/ f /f/, /v/
Naraz cat nar /n̪ɒr̺/ n /n̪/
Thantaz snake thantr /θɑn̪t̪r̺/ th /θ/, /ð/
Liffa eye lef /l̪ef/ l /l̪/
Tagaz mouth tagr /t̪ɑɣr̺/ t, ch /t̪/, /t͡ɕ/
Diraz teeth der /d̪er̺/ d, j /d̪/, /d͡ʑ/
Sarkaz sign sarkr /s̺ɒr̺kr̺/ s /s̪~z̪/, /ɕ~ʑ/
Rámaz knife rámr /r̺ɑːmr̺/ r /r̺/
Yilnaz grass yelnr /jel̪n̪r̺/ y /j/, /Cʲ/
Ilnaz - ilnr /il̪n̪r̺/ i /i/
Karranthaz eagle karranthr /kɑr̺ːɑnð̪r̺/ k /k/
Gataz armour gatr /ɣɑt̪r̺/ g /ɣ/
Herraz water her /her̺/ h /h/
Angaz arrow angr /ɑŋgr̺/ a /ɑ/
Wuntaz sea wontr /won̪t̪r̺/ w /w/, /Cʷ/
Untaz - untr /un̪t̪r̺/ u /u/
Üntaz - üntr /yn̪t̪r̺/ ü /y/
Enermaz beast enermr /en̪er̺mr̺/ e /e/
Óranta 2 well orant /or̺ɑn̪t̪/ o /o/
Őranta - örant /ør̺ɑn̪t̪/ ö /ø/

Late Hulran Edit

Just like in its predecessor, the palatal /t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ ʃ/ were represented by the digraphs 「tj dj sj」.

Out of the foreign sounds found in loanwords only, only the unaspirated /k~g/ had it's (multiple) ways of representation -「gg」, 「gk」and 「kg」. The foreign vowels /ʊ/ and /u/ were not distinguished from /o/ and /y/ in writing, and may have been even pronounced as such.

The vowels /ɛː ɔː/ were written as 「ae ao」. The earlier appeared only after /j t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ ʃ/, the latter only before /l r/.

The diphthongs /iə̯ uə̯/ were written 「ie oe」.

Name Value
Image Meaning Romanization Pronounciation Romanization Pronounciations
Maffaz house mafr /mɑfr̺/ m /m/
Pekwaz sword pökr /pʰøkr̺/ p /pʰ/
Baugwaz horse bougr /pouɣ̞r̺/ b /p~b/
Farránaz window forránr /for̺ːɑːn̪r̺/ f /f/
Varránaz - ʋorránr /ʋor̺ːɑːn̪r̺/ v /v/, /ʋ/
Naraz cat nor /n̪or̺/ n /n̪/
Thantaz snake thandr /θɑn̪d̪r̺/ th /θ/
Dhantaz - dhandr /ð̞ɑn̪d̪r̺/ dh /ð/, /ð̞/
Liffa eye lef /l̪ef/ l /l̪/
Tagaz mouth tagr /t̪ʰɑɣ̞r̺/ t, ch /t̪ʰ/, /t͡ʃʰ/
Diraz teeth der /t̪ər̺/ d, j /t̪~d̪/, /t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ/
Sarkaz sign sorkr /s̺or̺kr̺/ s /s̪/, /ʃ/
Rámaz knife rámr /r̺ɑːmr̺/ r /r̺/
Yilnaz grass yelnr /jel̪n̪r̺/ y /j/, /Cʲ/
Ilnaz grass ilnr /ɪl̪n̪r̺/ i /ɪ/, /i/
Karranthaz eagle korrandhr /kʰor̺ːɑnð̞̪r̺/ k /kʰ/
Gataz armour gadr /ɣ̞ɑd̪r̺/ g /ɣ/, /ɣ̞/
Herraz water her /her̺/ h /h/
Angaz arrow angr /ɑŋr̺/ a /ɑ/, /aː/
Wuntaz sea wondr /won̪d̪r̺/ w /w/, /Cʷ/
Untaz - ündr /ʏn̪d̪r̺/ ü /ʏ/, /y/
Enermaz beast enermr /en̪ər̺mr̺/ e /e/, /ə/
Óranta 2 well orand /or̺ɑn̪t̪/ o /o/
Őranta - örand /ør̺ɑn̪t̪/ o /ø/

Input Edit

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