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High Elven
Parent systems: Elven
 Early High Elven
  High Elven 
Language: Classical High Elven
High Elven
Etrandish
Wood Elven (only in Artaburro)
Dark Elven

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The High Elven alphabet is a writing system used to render various spoken languages. It originally evolved in 800 BEKE, replacing it's predecessor, the Early High Elven alphabet, roughly corresponding to the shift from spoken Archaic High Elven to Classical High Elven. The alphabet was unique and cutting-edge in the respects that it introduced the distinction between capital and miniscule, it pioneered the usage of diacritics for vowel length distinction, and eventually more innovations would follow.

Variants Edit

Classical High Elven Edit

The original High Elven alphabet was little different from it's predecessor, other than the shapes of the letters. However, around 700 BEKE, diacritics were invented to distinguish between long and short vowels. The Early High Elven alphabet did not distinguish between long and short vowels at all, whatsoever. The Classical High Elven alphabet between 800 BEKE and 700 BEKE used various systems to dinstinguish betwene short and long vowels.

  • Writing the short vowels /ɐ ɛ ɔ ɪ ʊ y/ as 「a e o i u y」 and the long vowels /aː eː oː iː uː yː/ as digraphs 「ah ei ou ih uh yi~yu」.
  • Writing the short vowels /ɐ ɛ ɔ ɪ ʊ y/ as 「a e o i u y」 and the long vowels /aː eː oː iː uː yː/ as doubled 「aa ee oo ii uu yy」.
  • Writing the short vowels /ɐ ɛ ɔ ɪ ʊ y/ as 「a e o i u y」 and the long vowels /aː eː oː iː uː yː/ with diacritics, as 「á é ó í ú ý」.
  • Not distinguishing between long and short vowels in writing at all, forcing the reader to figure them out from the context.

Eventually, by 700 BEKE, diacritics have won and became the standard, although several words and personal names retained the alternate spellings 「ei」 and 「ou」. Roughly during the same period - between 800 and 700 BEKE - most of the archaic, now-unused letters were also being thrown out. Out of the 25 letters of the Early High Elven alphabet only 22 were kept. However, the addition of diacritics have inceased the total number of letters from 22 to 28.

Unlike later variants, the Classical High Elven alphabet did not distinguish vowels and semivowels. As such, the same letter was used to write /ɪ/ and /j/, the same letter was used to write /ʊ/ and /w/. Distinction between close vowels and semivowels was an innovation that came later, around 200 BEKE with Middle High Elven.

The aspirated consonants /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ were written as 「ph th ch」.

Image Name Value
- Meaning Romanized as Pronunciation Romanized as Sound
Mophus Mophus s house mophus [mɔpʰʊs̪] m /m/
Pequus Pequus s sword pequus [pɛkʷʊs̪] p /p/
Bauvus Bauvus s horse bauvus [bɐʊ̯wʊs̪] b /b/
Farránus Farránus s window farránus [fɐr̺ːäːn̪ʊs̪] f /f/
Norus Norus s cat norus [n̪ɔr̺ʊs̪] n /n/
Tagom Tagom s mouth tagum [t̪ɐgũː] t /t/
Dirum Dirum s teeth dirum [d̪ɪr̺ũː] d /d/
Sélta Sélta s wheel sélta [s̪̪eːl̪t̪ɐ] s /s/
Zapha Zapha s wing zapha [d̪͡z̪ɐpʰɐ] z /d͡z~z/
Lepha Lepha s eye lepha [l̪ɛpʰɐ] l /l/
Rámum Rámum s knife rámum [r̺äːmũː] r /r/
Carramfus Carramfus s eagle carranfus [kɐr̺ːɐn̪fʊs̪] k /k/
Cirrum Cirrum s guard cirrum [kɪr̺ːũː] c
Quallum Quallum s flower quallum [kʷɐl̪l̪ũː] q
Gatus Gatus s armour gatus [gɐt̪ʊs̪] g /g/
Herrus Herrus s waves herrus [hɛr̺ːʊs̪] h /h/, /Cʰ/
Amalus Amalus s ladder amalus [ɐmɐl̪ʊs̪] a /a/
Ámálus Ámálus s - ámálus [äːmäːl̪ʊs̪] á /aː/
Enermus Enermus s beast enermus [ɛn̪ɛr̺mʊs̪] e /ɛ/
Énérmus Énérmus s - énérmus [eːn̪eːr̺mʊs̪] é /eː/
Ilnom Ilnom s grass ilnum [ɪl̪n̪ũː] i /ɪ/, /j/
Ílnom Ílnom s - ílnum [iːl̪n̪ũː] í /iː/
Orranta Orranta s well orranta [ɔr̺ːɐn̪t̪ɐ] o /ɔ/
Órranta Órranta s - óranta [oːr̺ɐn̪t̪ɐ] ó /oː/
Vuntus Vuntus s sea vuntus [wʊn̪t̪ʊs̪] u, v /ʊ/, /w/, /Cʷ/
Wúntus Wúntus s - vúntus [wuːn̪t̪ʊs̪] ú /uː/
Ydum Ydum s pot ydum [yd̪ũː] y /y/
Ýdum Ýdum s - ýdum [yːd̪ũː] ý /yː/

Middle High Elven Edit

Around 200 BEKE, Vulgar High Elven gave way to Middle High Elven. Unlike it's predecessor, Middle High Elven however was more than the language of the common rabble. It was also embraced as the language of nobility and royalty, and as such, it warranted the need of a standardized way to write. The sound shifts however rendered the Classical High Elven alphabet ill-suited to properly represent Middle High Elven, and as such, the writing was reformed.

One of the most important reforms is the introduction of two new letters for the vowel /u/. While Classical High Elven did not distingusih between the vowel /u/ and the semivowel /w/ (which has hardened into /v/ in Middle High Elven) in writing, Middle High Elven introduced a new letter for /u/, and it's longer variant /uː/, keeping the original letter reserved for the consonant /v/ only. The usage of 「u」 for the glide /w/ persisted however, for example in the digraphs 「qu」 and 「gu」.

Previously, 「i」 was used for the front unrounded /i/, and 「y」 was for the front rounded /y/, but by Middle High Elven, /y/ got unrounded to /i/, rendering the letter 「y」 redoundant - it was recycled to represent the semivowel /j/, but usage for vowel sounds still persisted - for /i/ in etymological spellings and /y/ in foreign words.

All around, the most important innovation of the Middle High Elven alphabet was the introduction of (partial) distinction between vowels and semivowels. The total number of letters was 30, three new letters being added to and one being dropped from the original 28 of the Classical High Elven alphabet.

/ɛː/ and /ɔː/ were written 「ae」 and 「ao」. 「c g sc」 normally stand for the velar /k g sk/, except before 「i í e é」, where they stand for the palatal /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ/. 「ch gh sch」 are used to represent the velar /k g sk/ before these front vowels, just as 「ci gi sci」 are used to represent the palatal sounds before the back vowels 「a á o ó u ú」.

Image Name Value
- Meaning Romanized as Pronunciation Romanized as Sound
Mophus s Mophus s house mofó [mɔfoː] m /m/
Pequus Pequus s sword pequó [pɛkʷoː] p /p/
Bauvus Bauvus s horse bavó [bävoː] b /b/
Farránus Farránus s window farránó [fär̺ːäːn̪oː] f /f/
Norus Norus s cat noró [n̪ɔr̺oː] n /n/
Tagom Tagom s mouth tagó [t̪ägoː] t /t/, /t͡s/
Dirum Dirum s teeth déró [d̪eːr̺oː] d /d/
Sélta Sélta s wheel sélta [s̪̪el̪t̪äː] s /s/, /ʃ/
Zapha Zapha s wing zafa [d̪͡z̪äfä] z /d͡z~z/
Lepha Lepha s eye lefa [l̪ɛfä] l /l/
Rámum Rámum s knife rámó [r̺äːmoː] r /r/
Carramfus Carramfus s eagle carranfó [kär̺ːän̪foː] k /k/
Cirrum Cirrum s guard cérró [t͡ʃer̺ːoː] c /k/, /t͡ʃ/, /ʃ/
Quallum Quallum s flower qualló [kʷäl̪l̪oː] q /k/
Gatus Gatus s armour gató [gät̪oː] g /g/, /d͡ʒ/
Herrus Herrus s waves herró [hɛr̺ːoː] h /h/
Amalus Amalus s ladder amaló [ämäl̪oː] a /a/
Ámálus Ámálus s - ámaló [äːmäl̪oː] á /aː/
Enermus Enermus s beast enermó [ɛn̪ɛr̺moː] e /ɛ/
Énérmus Énérmus s - énérmó [eːn̪eːr̺moː] é /eː/, /e/
Jilnom Jilnom s - jélnó [d͡ʒel̪n̪oː] j /d͡ʒ/
Ilnom Ilnom s grass ilnó [il̪n̪oː] i /i/, /j/
Ílnom Ílnom s - ílnó [iːl̪n̪oː] í /iː/
Orranta Orranta s well orranta [ɔr̺ːän̪t̪ä] o /ɔ/
Órranta Órranta s - óranta [oːr̺än̪t̪ä] ó /oː/, /o/
Vuntus Vuntus s sea vóntó [von̪t̪oː] v /v/
Untus Untus s - untó [un̪t̪oː] u /u/, /w/, /Cʷ/
Úntus Úntus s - úntó [uːn̪t̪oː] ú /uː/
Ydum Ydum s pot ydó [id̪oː] y /i/, /j/, also /y/ in foreign words
Ýdum Ýdum s - ýdó [iːd̪oː] ý /iː/, also /yː/ in foreign words

High Elven Edit

The current High Elven alphabet is little diferent than it's predecessor, leaving little to be said. Just like in its predecessor, 「c g sc」 normally stand for the velar /k g~ɣ~ʝ sk/, except before 「i í e é」, where they stand for the palatal /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ~ʒ ʃ/. 「ch gh sch」 are used to represent the velar /k g~ɣ~ʝ sk/ before these front vowels, just as 「ci gi sci」 are used to represent the palatal sounds before the back vowels 「a á o ó u ú」.

/ɥ/ is written 「yw」, even though it is typically pronounced [jyβ] or [wyβ].

Image Name Value
- Meaning Romanized as Pronunciation Romanized as Sound
Mophus s Mophus s house mofó [mɔfoː] m /m/
Pequus Pequus s sword pequó [pʰɛkʷʰoː] p /p/
Bauvus Bauvus s horse bavó [b̥ɒvoː] b /b~β/
Farránus Farránus s window farránó [fɒr̺ːæːn̪oː] f /f/
Norus Norus s cat noró [n̪ɔr̺oː] n /n/
Tagom Tagom s mouth tagó [t̪ʰɑɣoː] t /t/, /t͡s/
Dirum Dirum s teeth déró [d̥̪eːr̺oː] d /d~ð/
Sélta Sélta s wheel sélta [s̪̪el̪t̪ʰæː] s /s/, /ʃ/
Zapha Zapha s wing zafa [d̥̪͡z̪ɑfɑ] z /d͡z~z/
Lepha Lepha s eye lefa [l̪ɛfɑ] l /l/
Rámum Rámum s knife rámó [r̺æːmoː] r /r/
Carramfus Carramfus s eagle carranfó [kʰɑr̺ːɑn̪foː] k /k/
Cirrum Cirrum s guard cerró [t͡ʃʰɛr̺ːoː] c /k/, /t͡ʃ/, /ʃ/
Quallum Quallum s flower qualló [kʷʰɑl̪l̪oː] q /k/
Gatus Gatus s armour gató [g̊ɑt̪oː] g /g~ɣ~ʝ/, /d͡ʒ~ʒ/
Herrus Herrus s waves herró [hɛr̺ːoː] h /h/
Amalus Amalus s ladder amaló [ɑmɑl̪oː] a /ɑ~ɒ/
Ámálus Ámálus s - ámaló [æːmɑl̪oː] á /æː/
Enermus Enermus s beast enermó [ɛn̪ɛr̺moː] e /ɛ/
Énérmus Énérmus s - énérmó [eːn̪eːr̺moː] é /eː/
Jilnom Jilnom s - jélnó [d̥͡ʒel̪n̪oː] j /d͡ʒ~ʒ/
Ilnom Ilnom s grass ilnó [ɪl̪n̪oː] i /ɪ/, /j/
Ílnom Ílnom s - ílnó [iːl̪n̪oː] í /iː/
Orranta Orranta s well orranta [ɔr̺ːɑn̪t̪ʰɑ] o /ɔ/
Órranta Órranta s - óranta [oːr̺ɑn̪t̪ʰɑ] ó /oː/
Vuntus Vuntus s sea vontó [vɔn̪t̪ʰoː] v /v/
Vuntus double Vuntus double s wontó [wɔn̪t̪ʰoː] w /w/, /Cʷ/ (loanwords only + the digraph "yw")
Untus Untus s - untó [ʊn̪t̪ʰoː] u /ʊ/, /w/, /Cʷ/
Úntus Úntus s - úntó [uːn̪t̪ʰoː] ú /uː/
Ydum Ydum s pot ydó [ɪðoː] y /ɪ/, /j/, also /y/ in foreign words
Ýdum Ýdum s - ýdó [iːðoː] ý /iː/, also /yː/ in foreign words

Middle Etrandish Edit

The dental fricatives /θ ð/ were written as 「th」.

The front rounded vowels /œ øː/ were written as 「eo eu」. /y yː/ were written as 「y ý」 , even though those letters stood for /i iː/ in Middle High Elven, and also for the semivowel /j/. Since 「y」 stood for both the vowel /y/ and the semivowel /j/, a new convention was made for /jy/ and /ju/ - the earlier would be written 「yu」 , the latter as 「iu」 .

While in Middle High Elven, the preferred way to write /t͡ʃa t͡ʃɛ t͡ʃi t͡ʃo t͡ʃu/ was 「cia ce ci cio ciu」, in Middle Etrandish, the preferred way was 「cha che chi cho chu」 (except in High Elven loanwords). The same way, the preferred way to write /d͡ʒ/ was 「j」 instead of 「gi」, not just word-initially. Likewise, the preferred way to write /ka kɛ ki ko ku/ may be 「ca che chi co cu」 in Middle High Elven, as opposed to the Etrandish 「ca ke ki co cu」 (except in High Elven loanwords).

The velar nasal /ŋ/ is written as 「ng」.

Image Name Value
- Romanized as Pronunciation Romanized as Sound
Mophus s Mophus s mofó [mɔfoː] m /m/
Pequus Pequus s pequó [pɛkʷoː] p /p/
Bauvus Bauvus s bavó [bɑvoː] b /b/
Farránus Farránus s farránó [fɒrːäːnoː] f /f/
Norus Norus s noró [nɔroː] n /n/
Tagom Tagom s tagó [tɑgoː] t /t/, /t͡s/
Dirum Dirum s déró [deːroː] d /d/
Sélta Sélta s sélta [sɛltäː] s /s/, /z/, /ʃ/
Zapha Zapha s zafa [zɑfɑ] z /z/
Lepha Lepha s lefa [lɛfɑ] l /l/
Rámum Rámum s rámó [räːmoː] r /r/
Carramfus Carramfus s carranfó [kɒrːɑnfoː] k /k/
Cirrum Cirrum s cérró [t͡ʃɛrːoː] c /k/, /t͡ʃ/, /ʃ/
Quallum Quallum s qualló [kʷɑlloː] q /k/
Gatus Gatus s gató [gɑtoː] g /g/, /d͡ʒ/
Herrus Herrus s herró [hɛrːoː] h /h/
Amalus Amalus s amaló [ɑmɑloː] a /ɑ/, /ɒ/
Ámálus Ámálus s ámaló [äːmɑloː] á /aː/, /ɒː/
Enermus Enermus s enermó [ɛnərmoː] e /ɛ/
Énérmus Énérmus s énérmó [eːneːrmoː] é /eː/
Jilnom Jilnom s jelnó [d͡ʒɛlnoː] j /d͡ʒ/
Ilnom Ilnom s ilnó [ilnoː] i /i/, /j/
Ílnom Ílnom s ílnó [iːlnoː] í /iː/
Orranta Orranta s orranta [ɔrːɑntɑ] o /ɔ/
Órranta Órranta s óranta [oːrɑntɑ] ó /oː/
Vuntus Vuntus s vontó [vɔntoː] v /v/
Vuntus double Vuntus double s wontó [wɔntoː] w /w/, /Cʷ/
Untus Untus s untó [untoː] u /u/, /Cʷ/
Úntus Úntus s úntó [uːntoː] ú /uː/
Ydum Ydum s ydó [ydoː] y /y/, /j/
Ýdum Ýdum s ýdó [yːdoː] ý /yː/

Etrandish Edit

The dental fricatives /θ ð/ are written as 「th」.

The front rounded vowels /œ øʏ̯/ are written as 「eo eu」. /ʏ yː/ are written as 「y ý」 , even though those letters stood for /i iː/ in Middle High Elven, and also for the semivowel /j/. Since 「y」 stands both the vowel /ʏ/ and the semivowel /j/, a special convention is used for /jʏ/ and /jʊ/ - the earlier would be written 「yu」 , the latter as 「iu」.

While in Middle High Elven, the preferred way to write /t͡ʃa t͡ʃɛ t͡ʃi t͡ʃo t͡ʃu/ was 「cia ce ci cio ciu」, in Etrandish, the preferred way is 「cha che chi cho chu」 (except in High Elven loanwords). The same way, the preferred way to write /d͡ʒ/ is 「j」 instead of 「gi」, not just word-initially. The same way, the preferred way to write /d͡ʒ/ was 「j」 instead of 「gi」, not just word-initially. Likewise, the preferred way to write /ka kɛ ki ko ku/ may be 「ca che chi co cu」 in Middle High Elven, as opposed to the Etrandish 「ca ke ki co cu」 (except in High Elven loanwords).

All in all, the spellings did not change from Middle Etrandish, except that several letters that formerly stood for (long) monophthongs now stand for diphthongs.

The velar nasal /ŋ/ is written as 「ng」.

Image Name Value
Romanized as Pronunciation Romanized as Sound
Mophus s Mophus s mofó [mɔfoʊ̯] m /m/
Pequus Pequus s pequó [pʰɛkʷʰoʊ̯] p /pʰ~p/
Bauvus Bauvus s bavó [b̥ɑvoʊ̯] b /b/
Farránus Farránus s farránó [fɒrːäːnoʊ̯] f /f/
Norus Norus s noró [nɔroʊ̯] n /n/
Tagom Tagom s tagó [tʰɑgoʊ̯] t /tʰ~t/, /t͡sʰ/
Dirum Dirum s déró [d̥eɪ̯roʊ̯] d /d/
Sélta Sélta s selta [sɛltäː] s /s/, /z/, /ʃ/
Zapha Zapha s zafa [zɑfɑ] z /z/
Lepha Lepha s lefa [lɛfɑ] l /l/
Rámum Rámum s rámó [räːmoʊ̯] r /r/
Carramfus Carramfus s carranfó [kʰɒrːɑnfoʊ̯] k /kʰ~k/
Cirrum Cirrum s cerró [t͡ʃʰɛrːoʊ̯] c /kʰ~k/, /t͡ʃʰ~t͡ʃ/, /ʃ/
Quallum Quallum s qualló [kʷʰɑlloʊ̯] q /kʰ~k/
Gatus Gatus s gató [g̊ɑtoʊ̯] g /g/, /d͡ʒ/
Herrus Herrus s herró [hɛrːoʊ̯] h /h/
Amalus Amalus s amaló [ɑmɑloʊ̯] a /ɑ/, /ɒ/, /ɔ/, /ə/, /ɐ/
Ámálus Ámálus s ámaló [äːmɑloʊ̯] á /aː/, /ɔː/
Enermus Enermus s enermó [ɛnəɹmoʊ̯] e /ɛ/
Énérmus Énérmus s énérmó [eɪ̯neɪ̯rmoʊ̯] é /eː/
Jilnom Jilnom s jelnó [d̥͡ʒɛlnoʊ̯] j /d͡ʒ/
Ilnom Ilnom s ilnó [ɪlnoʊ̯] i /ɪ/, /j/, /ə/ (before /r/)
Ílnom Ílnom s ílnó [iːlnoʊ̯] í /iː/
Orranta Orranta s orranta [ɔrːɑntʰɑ] o /ɔ/
Órranta Órranta s óranta [oʊ̯rɑntʰɑ] ó /oʊ/
Vuntus Vuntus s vontó [vɔntʰoʊ̯] v /v/
Vuntus double Vuntus double s wontó [wɔntʰoʊ̯] w /w/, /Cʷ/
Untus Untus s untó [ʊntʰoʊ̯] u /ʊ/, /Cʷ/, /ə/ (before /r/)
Úntus Úntus s úntó [uːntʰoʊ̯] ú /uː/
Ydum Ydum s ydum [ʏdoʊ̯] y /ʏ/, /j/, /ə/ (before /r/)
Ýdum Ýdum s ýdum [yːdoʊ̯] ý /yː/

Etrancoasti Edit

The dental fricatives/approximants /θ ð/ are written as 「th」.

The Etrancoasti orthography is based off Etrandish, but unlike in all other languages that use the High Elven alphabet, the letters normally standing for voiceless stops - 「p t k c qu」 - are used for the aspirated stops /pʰ tʰ kʰ t͡ʃʰ kʷʰ/, while the letters normally standing for voiced stops - 「b d g」 - are used for the unaspirated /p~b t~d k~g t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ/.

The letter 「g」 stands for three sounds - the approximant /ɣ/ in native Etrancoasti words, and the unaspirated velar and palatal stops /k~g/ and /t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ/ in loanwords, mainly from Etrandish and High Elven. The digraph 「gh」 is used for both /ɣ/ and /k~g/ before front vowels.

The velar nasal /ŋ/ is written as 「ng」.

The front rounded vowels /ø̞ øy̯ œø̯/ are written 「eo eu oe」 respectively. The diphthong /ɛe̯/ is written 「ae」.

Since 「y」 stands both the vowel /ʏ/ and the semivowel /j/, a special convention is used for for /jʏ/ and /jʊ/ - the earlier would be written 「yu」 , the latter as 「iu」.

Image Name Value
Romanized as Pronunciation Romanized as Sound
Mophus s Mophus s mofó [mo̞fou̯] m /m/
Pequus Pequus s pequó [pʰe̞kʷʰou̯] p /pʰ/
Bauvus Bauvus s bavó [pɑvou̯] b /p~b/
Farránus Farránus s farránó [fɒrːäːnou̯] f /f/
Norus Norus s noró [no̞rou̯] n /n/
Tagom Tagom s tagó [tʰɑɣou̯] t /tʰ/, /t͡s/
Dirum Dirum s déró [tei̯rou̯] d /t~d/
Sélta Sélta s selta [se̞ltʰäː] s /s/, /z/, /ʃ/
Zapha Zapha s zafa [zɑfɑ] z /z/
Lepha Lepha s lefa [le̞fɑ] l /l/
Rámum Rámum s rámó [räːmou̯] r /r/
Carramfus Carramfus s carranfó [kʰɒrːɑnfou̯] k /kʰ/
Cirrum Cirrum s cerró [t͡ʃʰe̞rːou̯] c /kʰ/, /t͡ʃʰ/, /ʃ/
Quallum Quallum s qualló [kʷʰɑlːou̯] q /kʰ/
Gatus Gatus s gató [ɣɑtou̯] g /ɣ/, /k~g/, /t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ/
Herrus Herrus s herró [he̞rːou̯] h /h/, /x/
Amalus Amalus s amaló [ɑmɑlou̯] a /ɑ/, /o̞/
Ámálus Ámálus s ámaló [äːmɑlou̯] á /aː/, /au̯/
Enermus Enermus s enermó [e̞nərmou̯] e /e̞/, /ɛe̯/
Énérmus Énérmus s énérmó [ei̯nei̯rmou̯] é /ei̯/
Jilnom Jilnom s jelnó [t͡ʃe̞lnou̯] j /t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ/
Ilnom Ilnom s ilnó [ɪlnou̯] i /ɪ/, /j/
Ílnom Ílnom s ílnó [ilnou̯] í /i/
Orranta Orranta s orranta [o̞rːɑntʰɑ] o /o̞/
Órranta Órranta s óranta [ou̯rɑntʰɑ] ó /ou̯/
Vuntus Vuntus s vontó [vo̞ntʰou̯] v /v/
Vuntus double Vuntus double s wontó [wo̞ntʰou̯] w /w/, /Cʷ/
Untus Untus s untó [ʊntʰou̯] u /ʊ/, /Cʷ/
Úntus Úntus s úntó [untʰou̯] ú /u/
Ydum Ydum s ydum [ʏdou̯] y /ʏ/, /j/
Ýdum Ýdum s ýdum [yːdou̯] ý /y/

Wood Elven (Artaburro) Edit

In Principality of Artaburro, the most spoken language is Wood Elven, but the preferred writing script is the High Elven one. The spelling conventions are very similiar to that of Middle High Elven, but with slight differences. One example is the usage of 「sh ch j」 in for coda-position /ʃ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/, which in turn came from the deletion of word-final /i/ and /u/ in Wood Elven, leaving palatalizated consonants in the syllable coda that previously only appeared before /i/ and /j/. Another inconsistency is the usage of both 「k」 and 「ch」 for the very same function - to distinguish between /k/ and /t͡ʃ/ before front vowels. Generally, /ky/ is written 「ky」, while /kɛ keː ki/ are written 「che ché chi」.

Since 「y」 is used for both /y/ and /j/, the same convention takes place as in Etrandish: 「yu」 for /jy/, 「iu」 for /ju/. The only exception is when /j/ between a consonant and a vowel. For example, /gʲy/ is written 「ghiy」, not 「ghyu」.

Likewise, /kʲaɔ/ and /gʲaɔ/ are wirtten as 「chiao」 and 「ghiao」 respectively, instead of 「chyao」 and 「ghyao」.

/t͡s/ is generally written as 「th」, causing it to be very often mispronounced as /t/ by High Elves and /θ~ð/ by Humans. The people of Artaburro in turn mispronounce the Etrandsih /θ/ as /t͡s/, as opposed to the /f/ and /t/ of High Elven accents and /s/ of Wood Elven accents. Hence, the Dragoc Wood Elven 「tura」 (Tsura, /t͡sɨᵝɾa/) gets rendered as 「Thyra」 (Thyra, /t͡syɾa/). This spelling convention is also employed by Dragoc Wood Elves who migrate to other countries like Etrand and Froturn, which is why 「ituriku(Itsuriku) gets rendered as 「Ithric(Ithric) or 「Ithrik(Ithrik).

Image Name Value
- Meaning Romanized as Pronunciation Romanized as Sound
Mophus s Mophus s house mofó [mɔfoː] m /m/
Pequus Pequus s sword pequó [pɛkʷoː] p /p/
Bauvus Bauvus s horse bavó [bävoː] b /b/
Farránus Farránus s window farránó [fär̺ːäːn̪oː] f /f/
Norus Norus s cat noró [n̪ɔɾ̺oː] n /n/
Tagom Tagom s mouth tagó [t̪ägoː] t /t/, /t͡s/
Dirum Dirum s teeth déró [d̪eːɾ̺oː] d /d/
Sélta Sélta s wheel sélta [s̪̪el̪t̪äː] s /s/, /ʃ/
Zapha Zapha s wing zafa [d̪͡z̪äfä] z /d͡z~z/
Lepha Lepha s eye lefa [l̪ɛfä] l /l/
Rámum Rámum s knife rámó [r̺äːmoː] r /r/
Carramfus Carramfus s eagle carranfó [kär̺ːän̪foː] k /k/
Cirrum Cirrum s guard cerró [t͡ʃɛr̺ːoː] c /k/, /t͡ʃ/, /ʃ/
Quallum Quallum s flower qualló [kʷäl̪ːoː] q /k/
Gatus Gatus s armour gató [gät̪oː] g /g/, /d͡ʒ/
Herrus Herrus s waves herró [hɛr̺ːoː] h /h/, /ç/
Amalus Amalus s ladder amaló [ämäl̪oː] a /a/
Ámálus Ámálus s - ámaló [äːmäl̪oː] á /aː/
Enermus Enermus s beast enermó [ɛn̪ɛr̺moː] e /ɛ/
Énérmus Énérmus s - énérmó [eːn̪eːr̺moː] é /eː/, /e/
Jilnom Jilnom s - jelnó [d͡ʒɛl̪n̪oː] j /d͡ʒ/
Ilnom Ilnom s grass ilnó [il̪n̪oː] i /i/, /j/
Ílnom Ílnom s - ílnó [iːl̪n̪oː] í /iː/
Orranta Orranta s well orranta [ɔr̺ːän̪t̪ä] o /ɔ/
Órranta Órranta s - óranta [oːr̺än̪t̪ä] ó /oː/
Vuntus Vuntus s sea vontó [vɔn̪t̪oː] v /v/
Untus Untus s - untó [un̪t̪oː] u /u/, /w/, /Cʷ/
Úntus Úntus s - úntó [uːn̪t̪oː] ú /uː/
Ydum Ydum s pot ydó [yd̪oː] y /y/, /j/
Ýdum Ýdum s - ýdó [yːd̪oː] ý /yː/

Dark Elven Edit

The orthography largerly follows the customs of Etrandish and Artaburro Wood Elven, with several differences regarding the consonants:

  • 「c」 always stands for /ʃ~ɕ/, never for /k/. 「tc」 is used for /t͡ʃ~t͡ɕ/ (for the sake of simplicity, they are Romanized as 「sh ch」 instead of 「c tc」)
  • 「j」 is used for /ʒ~ʑ/, 「dj」 is used for /d͡ʒ~d͡ʑ/ (for the sake of simplicity, they are Romanized as 「zh j」 instead of 「j dj」)
  • 「g」 always stands for /g/, never for /d͡ʒ~d͡ʑ/
  • 「q」 stands for /q/, not /k/

The fronted vowels /æ æː ɜᵝ ɘᵝː ɨᵝ ɨᵝː/ are written 「ae áé oe óé y ý」.

Image Name Value
- Romanized as Pronunciation Romanized as Sound
Mophus s Mophus s mofó [mɔfoː~mɔɸoː] m /m/
Pequus Pequus s peqó [pɛqoː] p /p/
Bauvus Bauvus s bavó [bävoː~bäβoː] b /b/
Farránus Farránus s farránó [fäʀːäːn̪oː~ɸäʀːäːn̪oː] f /f~ɸ/
Norus Norus s noró [n̪ɔʀoː] n /n/
Tagom Tagom s tagó [t̪ägoː] t /t/
Dirum Dirum s déró [d̪eːʀoː] d /d/
Sélta Sélta s sélta [s̪̪el̪t̪äː] s /s/, /ʃ/
Zapha Zapha s zafa [d̪͡z̪äfä~d̪͡z̪äɸä] z /d͡z~z/
Lepha Lepha s lefa [l̪ɛfä~l̪ɛɸä] l /l/
Rámum Rámum s rámó [ʀɒːmoː~ʀ̆ɒːmoː~ʁɒːmoː] r /ʀ~ʀ̆~ʁ/
Carramfus Carramfus s carranfó [käʀːɒn̪foː~käʀːɒn̪ɸoː] k /k/
Cirrum Cirrum s tcherró [t͡ʃɛʀːoː~t͡ɕɛʀːoː] sh, ch /ʃ~ɕ/, /t͡ʃ~t͡ɕ/
Quallum Quallum s qalló [qɒl̪ːoː] q /q/
Gatus Gatus s gató [gät̪oː] g /g/
Herrus Herrus s herró [xɛr̺ːoː~χɛr̺ːoː] h /x~χ/
Amalus Amalus s amaló [ämäl̪oː] a /a/, /ɒ/
Ámálus Ámálus s ámaló [äːmäl̪oː] á /aː/, /ɒː/
Enermus Enermus s enermó [ɛn̪ɛr̺moː] e /ɛ/
Énérmus Énérmus s énérmó [eːn̪eːr̺moː] é /eː/
Jilnom Jilnom s djelnó [d͡ʒɛl̪n̪oː~d͡ʑɛl̪n̪oː] zh, j /ʒ~ʑ/, /d͡ʒ~d͡ʑ/
Ilnom Ilnom s ilnó [il̪n̪oː] i /i/, /j/
Ílnom Ílnom s ílnó [iːl̪n̪oː] í /iː/
Orranta Orranta s orranta [ɔr̺ːän̪t̪ä] o /ɔ/
Órranta Órranta s óranta [oːr̺än̪t̪ä] ó /oː/, /o/
Vuntus Vuntus s vontó [vɔn̪t̪oː~βɔn̪t̪oː] v /v~β/
Vuntus double Vuntus double s wóntó [wɔn̪t̪oː] w /w/, /Cʷ/
Untus Untus s untó [un̪t̪oː] u /u/, /w/, /Cʷ/
Úntus Úntus s úntó [uːn̪t̪oː] ú /uː/
Ydum Ydum s ydó [yd̪oː] ü, y /ɨᵝ/, /j/
Ýdum Ýdum s ýdó [ɨᵝːd̪oː] ű, ý /ɨᵝː/

Input Edit

See also: Template:HE/doc

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