Language: English

Total speakers: 570 000
Language family: Torgyrian
Writing system: High Elven

Template:Infobox Language/IPA notice

The Etrandish language is a Human language first spoken in the territories that would become the Kingdom of Etrand by 0 BEKE/AEKE. It reached it's currently recognizable and intelligible form roughly around 600 AEKE, but changes are still ongoing.

At this point, Etrandish has became the lingua franca of global trade, turning from a borrowing language into a loaning language, extending the language beyond the boundaries of the Kingdom of Etrand

Evolution from Middle Etrandish Edit

Consonants Edit

  • The voiceless stops and affricates /p t t͡s t͡ʃ k kʷ/ became aspirated [pʰ tʰ t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ kʷʰ]
  • Modally voiced stops and affricates /b d d͡ʒ g gʷ/ partially lost their voicing word-initially and word-finally, becoming slack-voiced (completely devoiced in northern dialects)
  • In uneducated speech, coda-position nasals /m n ŋ/ merged into a new phoneme /ɴ/ at the ends of words
  • In all dialects but Standard Etrandish, the voiceless /ʍ/ merges with the voiced /w/

Vowels Edit

  • The laxing of short /i y u/ to [ɪ ʏ ʊ] has become fully accepted as standard and spread to diphthongs too.
    • /ui̯/, /ei̯/, /ɐi̯/, /ɔu̯/ and /ɐu̯/ shifted to [ʊɪ̯], [eɪ̯], [ɐɪ̯], [oʊ̯] and [ɐʊ̯].
    • /øː/ and /øi̯/ merged as [øʏ̯]
  • Diphthongization of long close-mid vowels:
    • /eː/ and /oː/ diphthongized to [eɪ̯] and [oʊ̯]
    • /øː/ and /øi̯/ merged as [øʏ̯]
    • The long open-mid vowels /ɛː ɔː/ remained unchanged
  • Shift of /ɒl/ and /ɒːl/ to /ɔl/ and /ɔːl/
    • The cluster /ɒlk/ became /ɔːk/
  • Shift of /ɒːr/ to /ɔːr/, eliminating historical distinction with /ɐu̯r/ (which shifted to /ɔːr/ 400 years before)
    • /ɒr/ remained unchanged
  • Merger of /ɪr ʏr ʊr/ to /ər/ in all except the Northern dialects

Consonants Edit

This is about Standard Etrandish phonology. If you want to read about dialects, see Etrandish dialects.

Labial Dental Palatal Velar
Plain Sibilant Plain Labialized
Nasal m n ɴ* (ŋ)
Stop Voiceless p~pʰ t~tʰ t͡s~t͡sʰ t͡ʃ~t͡ʃʰ k~kʰ kʷ~kʷʰ
Voiced b̥~b d̥~d d̥͡ʒ~d͡ʒ g̊~g
Fricative Voiceless f θ* s ʃ h~x~ç
Voiced v ð* z
Approximant l j w ʍ
Rhotic r~ɾ~ɹ~ɻ~ʀ~ʁ*
  • The voiceless /ʍ/ is present only in conservative speech. In every other variant, it is merged with the voiced /w/.
  • The voiceless stops and affricates /p t t͡s t͡ʃ k kʷ/ are aspirated [pʰ tʰ t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ kʷʰ] when not in the syllable coda or proceeding a sibilant.
    • There is no aspiration in conservative speech.
  • The voiceless stops /p t k/ are typically unreleased [p̚ t̚ k̚] in the syllable coda
    • In emphatic speech, they may be aspirated [pʰ tʰ kʰ] instead
  • The voiced stops and affricates /b d d͡ʒ g gʷ/ are slack-voiced [b̥ d̥ d̥͡ʒ g̊ g̊ʷ] word-initially and word-finally.
    • In the dialects of Northern Etrand, they may be completely devoiced [p t t͡ʃ k kʷ] in these environments. This is a marked feature of the stereotypical Steelhelm accent.
    • Modally voiced stops and affricates are always fully voiced in conservative speech.
  • The dental fricatives /θ ð/ are often shifted to other positions.
    • /ð/ is shifted to [d̪] or even merged with /d/ in most dialects
    • /θ/ is merged with /f/ in a lot of lower-class speech. Generally, /θ/ is preserved in its original form (as [θ]) much more widely than /ð/.
    • /θ ð/ are preserved as [θ ð] not only in conservative speech, but also in most educated speech
  • The uvular nasal /ɴ/ only exists in middle-class speech as a merger of coda-position /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/ when no consonant follows
    • Conservative speech preserves /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/ fully intact, as [m], [n] and [ŋ]
    • Most of the time, /ɴ/ is vocalized to [ʊ̯̃] or [ʏ̯̃], forming nasal diphthongs.
  • /r/ is realized in multiple ways, depending on the envorniment
    • In Standard Etrandish - as well as in the dialect of Western Etrand -, /r/ is realized as an...
      • apico-alveolar trill [r̺] word-initially and when geminated
      • post-velar (optionally raised) trill [ʀ̟~ʀ̟̝] after /k/ and /g/
      • apico-alveolar/retroflex flap [ɾ̺~ɽ] medially when not geminated
      • velarized alveolar/retroflex approximant [ɹˠ~ɻ] in the syllable coda
    • In several dialects, things are different:
      • in Northern Etrand, the Guttural R [ʀ~ʁ~ʁ̞~χ] reign supreme.
      • In Southern Etrand, /r/ is consistently realized as a post-alveolar / retroflex approximant [ɹ̠~ɻ] and may or may not be elided when no vowel follows (non-rhotic), based on speaker preference (speakers who elide the final /r/ pronunce /ər/ as [ɐ]).
      • In the Eastern Mountains, /r/ is realized as an alveolar/uvular trill [r~ʀ] consistenly. The flap and approximant are never used.
    • Non-humans will usually pronounce /r/ as in their native, non-human languages:
      • Dwarves realizing /r/ as a uvular trill [ʀ]
      • Halflings realizing /r/ as an alveolar trill/flap [r~ɾ]
      • Lizardmen realizing /r/ as a retroflex approximant [ɻ].

Vowels Edit

This is about Standard Etrandish phonology. If you want to read about dialects, see Etrandish dialects.

Monophthongs Edit

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close Long uː*
Short ɪ ʏ ʊ
Mid Long (ɛː) (ɔː)
Short ɛ œ ə ɔ
Open Long
Short ɑ (ɒ)
  • The vowels /ɒ/, /ɔː/ and /ɛː/ only exist before /r/ and /l/
  • In all but the most conservative pronunciations - Standard and dialectal alike - /uː/ is centralized to [ʉː], or even fronted to [yː], especially after /j/.
  • /ɑ/ is primarily pronounced as [ɑ] or [ɑ̈], but also has the following allophones:
    • [ɒ] before coda-position /r/
    • [ɔ] before coda-position /l/
    • [ɐ] in diphthongs, word-finally, and also in vowel clusters following /ɪ/, /ʏ/, /ʊ/, /ɛ/ or /ɔ/: in other words, /ɪɑ ʏɑ ʊɑ ɛɑ ɔɑ/ are pronounced as [ɪɐ ʏɐ ʊɐ ɛɐ ɔɐ].

Diphthongs Edit

Fronted Backed
Close ʊɪ̯
Mid eɪ̯ øʏ̯ oɪ̯ oʊ̯
Open ɐɪ̯ ɐʊ̯
  • In lower-class and middle-class speech, the nasal diphthongs [ɑʊ̯̃ əʏ̯̃~əʊ̯̃ ɛʏ̯̃ œʏ̯̃ iʏ̯̃ ɔʊ̯̃ uʊ̯̃] exist too, as allophones of /ɑɴ əɴ ɛɴ œɴ ɪɴ ɔɴ ʊɴ/
    • /ɴ/ does not exist in conservative speech. Conservative speech preserves /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/ fully intact, as [m], [n] and [ŋ]
    • Even in most non-conservative speech, /ɴ/ only exists word-finally

See also Edit

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