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The Etrandish language has a varierity of dialects. The vocabulary and grammar are overwhelmingly the same - other than slang - and the main difference is pronounciation.

Standard Etrandish vs Mesolects vs Dialects Edit

Variants of "natural" Etrandish are divided into three groups:

  • Standard Etrandish, based off the Grandfolk dialect.
  • The various dialects that are elaborated below.
  • Mesolects serving as a compromise between Standard Etrandish and the local dialect

The characteristics of mesolects are:

  • Pronounciation of the coda-nasals /m n ŋ/ as [m n ŋ]
  • Preservation of all distinctions that Standard Etrandish makes but are abolished in the dialects
  • Pronounciation of /r/ in the way the local dialect does.
  • Presence of cross-dialectal variation that normally does not exist in Standard Etrandish.

A few examples to diferencs between dialects and mesolects:

  • /gɔtər/
    • [g̊ɔtʰəɹ] in Standard Etrandish
    • [kɔtʰəʁ] in the Northern Etrandish dialect
    • [g̊ɔtʰəʁ] in the Northern Etrandish mesolect.
  • /rɑrərn/
    • [rɑɾəɹn] in Standard Etrnadish
    • [ɽɑɽəɻɳ~ɽɑɽəɳː] in the Copperport dialect
    • [ɽɑɽəɻn] in the Copperort mesolect
  • /kɔpːərpɔrt/
    • [kʰɔpʰːəɹpɔɹt] in Standard Etrandish,
    • [kʰɑpʰːəɻpʊɻɖ̥~kʰɑpʰːəɻpʊɖ̥ː] in the Copperport dialect
    • [kʰɔpʰːəɻpɔɻt] in the Copperport mesolect

Etrandish dialects in Etrand Edit

Western Etrandish Edit

While Standard Etrandish is based off Western Etrandish - as the capital city Grandfolk is located in Western Etrand -, there are still quite a few differences between the two:

  • In Standard Etrandish, /r/ is pronounced as a trill [r] word-initially and when geminated, a flap [ɾ] when in the syllable onset (except word-initially), an approximant [ɹ] in the syllable coda.
    In Western Etrandish, /r/ is always pronounced as a flap [ɾ] when not geminated, even word-initially. Geminated /r/ is still pronounced as a trilled [r]. Coda-position /r/ may have a a strong postvocalic release [ɾᵊ].
  • In Standard Etrandish, the coda-position nasals /m n ŋ/ are fully preserved in their original forms [m n ŋ].
    Meanwhile, in Western Etrandish, they are merged into an archiphoneme /N/, which is pronounced as [m] before labial consonants, [n] before alveolar consonants, [ŋ] before velar consonants, and either a uvular nasal [ɴ] or a nasal glide [ʏ̯̃~ʊ̯̃] (forming nasal diphthongs) at the end of words. The final cluster /rn/ is exempt from this treatment, and is pronounced as [ɾn].
  • Western Etrandish makes use of "helping vowels" - an ultra-short schwa [ə̆] inserted between two consonants in clusters, especially word-initial clusters. Nasal + obstrudent clusters are generally exempted from this treatment.
  • Standard Etrandish preserves both /θ/ and /ð/ as [θ] and [ð].
    Western Etrandish preserves only /θ/, merging /ð/ with /d/.

Inner Etrandish Edit

  • /ð/ is merged with /d/, /θ/ is merged with /f/
  • Word-final /m n ŋ/ are pronounced as nasal-glides [ʊ̯̃ ʏ̯̃ ʊ̯̃], forming diphthongs with the preceding vowel. The final cluster /rn/ is exempt from this treatment, and is pronounced as [ɹn].
  • /r/ is pronounced as a uvular trill [ʀ] word-initially and when geminated, an alveolar flap [ɾ] otherwise.
    • Intervocalic /l/ is also a flapped [ɾ]
  • /ʊ/ is often unrounded and lowered to /ʌ/, except after labial consonants.
  • The labio-velar stops /kʷ gʷ/ are softened to /xʷ w/.
  • Word-final short vowels are all reduced to a schwa [ə]. For example, /kʷɑlɑ/ is pronounced [xʷɑɾə].
  • Word-final voicing distinctions are lost between stops: all word-final stops are slack-voiced.

Northern Etrandish Edit

  • /θ ð/ are preserved as [θ ð], just like in Standard Etrandish.
  • The modally-voiced stops and affricates /b d d͡ʒ g gʷ/ are fully devoiced [p t t͡ʃ k kʷ] word-initially. They are still distinct from the modally voiceless /p t t͡ʃ k kʷ/, which are aspirated.
    • All word-final stops and affricates are slack-voiced or voiceless-unaspirated.
  • The word-initial voiced fricatives /v z ð/ are either devoiced to [f s θ] or softened to [w ɹ ɹ], depending on speaker preference.
    • When Northern Etrandish speakers try to speak Standard Etrandish, they may hypercorrect and replace [ɹ] with [z] or [ð]
  • Unlike in other dialects - and just like in Standard Etrandish - the coda-position nasals /m n ŋ/ are preserved as [m n ŋ].
  • Guttural R:
    • Word-initial and geminated /r/ is pronounced as a uvular trill/fricative [ʀ~ʁ].
    • Intervocalic /r/ is pronounced as a uvular flap [ʀ̆].
    • Coda-position /r/ is pronounced either as a uvular approximant/semivowel [ʁ̞~ɐ̯] or a uvular flap [ʀ̆], depending on speaker preference.
    • The clusters /pr tr t͡ʃr kr/ are pronounced [pχ tχ t͡ɕχ~ʈ͡ʂχ kχ], especially word-initially.
  • /ɪr ʏr ʊr/ are preserved and kept distinct - Standard Etrandish and all other dialects merge them into /ər/.
  • /s/ is often palatalized to /ʃ/ before and after /i/
  • /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ/ are dissimilated. They are palatalized to [t͡ɕʰ d͡ʑ ɕ] before front vowels, retroflexed [ʈ͡ʂʰ ɖ͡ʐ ʂ] everywhere else.
  • The lax /ɪ ʏ ʊ/ are tensed to /i y u/
    • They are still distinct from the long /iː yː uː/

Southern Etrandish Edit

  • Word-final /m n ŋ/ are pronounced as nasal-glides [ʊ̯̃ ʏ̯̃ ʊ̯̃], forming diphthongs with the preceding vowel. The final cluster /rn/ is exempt from this treatment, and is pronounced as [ɹn].
  • /r/ is consistently pronounced an alveolar approximant [ɹ].
    • Coda-position /r/ may be elided (non-rhotic). Speakers who elide coda-position /r/ usually enlong the vowel before it, which introduces the long schwa [əː] that is generally merged with the diphthong /øʏ̯/.
  • /θ ð/ are merged with /f d/
  • Coda-position /l/ is vocalized to [ʊ̯].
  • /ʊ/ is unrounded and lowered to /ʌ/ when not following a labial consonant - a feature shared with Inner Etrandish.
    • /ʌ/ is generally pronounced as [ɐ] or merged with /ɑ/
  • Short /ɛ/ is raised to [e̞]. Long /ɛː/ is lowered to [æː]
  • Short /ɔ/ is merged with /ɑ/. Long /ɔː/ remains distinct.
  • The aspiration is weak on modally voiceless stops. They may be even completely unaspirated, leaving only the voicing distinction.

Copperport dialect Edit

The accent in Copperport shares many features with the Southern Etrandish dialect, but is still distinct. It also shares a lot of features with the Southern Etrancoasti dialect, and it is not clear whether the Copperport dialect influenced Southern Etrancoasti or the other way around.

  • /θ/ is merged with /f/, /ð/ is pronounced a dental stop [d̪] that is never retroflexed by preceding /r/, keeping it semi-distinct from /d/.
  • Word-final /m n ŋ/ are pronounced as nasal-glides [ʊ̯̃ ʏ̯̃ ʊ̯̃], forming diphthongs with the preceding vowel. The final cluster /rn/ is exempt from this treatment, and is pronounced as [ɻɳ~ɳː].
  • /r/ is pronounced as a retroflex flap [ɽ] in the syllable onset, a retroflex approximant [ɻ] in the syllable coda (except before /t d/, where it's still a flap). Geminated /rː/ is either degeminated to [ɽ], or pronounced an alveolar/uvular trill [r~ʀ]. The retroflex articulation of /r/ is a feature shared with the Southern Etrancoasti dialect.
    • The clusters /tr dr/ are pronounced as [ʈ͡ʂʰɻ ɖ͡ʐɻ] instead of [tʰɽ dɽ], a feature shared with the Southern Etrancoasti dialect.
  • The shibilants /tʃ dʒ ʃ/ are strongly palatalized to [t͡ɕʰ d͡ʑ ɕ], or even [cʰ ɟ ɕ] by some speakers. This helps to keep them distinct from /tr dr/, which are pronounced as [ʈ͡ʂɻ̊ ɖ͡ʐɻ]. Another feature shared with the Southern Etrancoasti dialect
  • The clusters /rn rt rt rs rz rl/ are pronounced as either [ɻɳ ɽʈ ɽɖ ɻʂ ɻʐ ɻɭ] or [ɳː ʈː ɖː ʂː ʐː ɭː], depending on speaker preference.
    • Lower-class speakers and stereotypical sailors pronounce word-final /rt rd/ as [ɻː] instead of [ɽɖ̥~ɖ̥ː]. This is not to be confused with /rː/, which is still pronoucned as an alveolar/uvular trill [r~ʀ].
    • Lower-class speakers generally pronounce /rl/ as [ɻː] instead of [ɻɭ~ɭː]. This is not to be confused with /rː/, which is still pronoucned as an alveolar/uvular trill [r~ʀ].
    • Some lower-class speakers may also pronounce coda-position - or even intervocalic - /r/ as [ɻ], but this is very stigmatized.
  • Distinction between modally voiced and voiceless stops is neutralized word-finally, being slack-voiced.
  • /ɔr/ is pronounced as [ʊɻ], hence the city's name, Copperport is pronounced as [kʰɑpʰːəɻpʰʊɽɖ̥~kʰɑpʰːəɻpʰʊɖ̥ː], versus the Standard Etrandish [kʰɔpʰːəɹpʰɔɹt]. This led to the city being nicknamed as "Capperpudd" [kʰɑpʰːəɹpʊdː] in other regions.
  • Short /ɛ/ is raised to [e̞]. Long /ɛː/ is lowered to [æː]
  • Short /ɔ/ is merged with /ɑ/ (except before /r/). Long /ɔː/ remains distinct.

Eastern Mountains dialect Edit

Spoken in the sparserly inhabited mountains along the Etrandish-Etrancoasti border, the local dialects share a lot of phonological features with Northern Etrancoasti, and have a lot of loanwords from Etrancoasti.

  • /r/ is always pronounced as a trill, either alveolar [r] or uvular [ʀ]. The flap and approximant pronounciations are never used.
  • Word-final /m n ŋ/ are pronounced as nasal-glides [ʊ̯̃ ʏ̯̃ ʊ̯̃], forming diphthongs with the preceding vowel. The final cluster /rn/ is exempt from this treatment, and is pronounced as [rn~ʀɴ].
  • /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ/ are retroflexed to [ʈ͡ʂʰ ɖ͡ʐ ʂ]. This helps to keep them distinct from /t d/ before front vowels, which are pronounced [cʰ ɟ] or [t͡ɕʰ d͡ʑ].
  • /n t d s z/ are palatalized [nʲ tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ] before front vowels other than /ɛ/
    • The palatalization on /n t d/ is usually stronger, to [ɲ cʰ ɟ] or even [ɲ t͡ɕʰ d͡ʑ] by some speakers.
  • /θ/ is merged with /f/, /ð/ is pronounced a dental stop [d̪] that is never palatalized by proceeding front vowel, keeping it semi-distinct from /d/.
  • The diphthongs /eɪ øʏ oʊ/ are replaced by long vowels [eː øː oː]
  • The modally voiced stops and affricates /b d d͡ʒ g gʷ/ are usually breathy-voiced [bʱ dʱ d͡ʒʱ gʱ gʷʱ] word-initially. /r/ too is breathy-voiced/murmured [r̤~ʀ̤] word-initially.
  • The modally voiceless stops /p t t͡s t͡ʃ k kʷ/ lose their aspiration medially, retaining it only word-initially.

Cross-dialectal variation Edit

Some features happen to span across multiple dialects or are independent of dialects, and may be up to speaker preference:

  • Intervocalic T and D flapping: A lot of speakers - independently of dialect - may pronounce intervocalic /t/ and /d/ as an apico-alveolar flap [ɾ̺] - for speakers who pronounce /ð/ as [d], intervocalic /ð/ becomes a dental flap [ɾ̪]. For speakers who pronounce /r/ as a flap/trill, this inevitably cause confusion between intervocalic /r/, /t/, /d/ and /ð/.
    • In Northern Etrand - where /r/ is a uvular [ʀ~ʁ] - and Southern Etrand - where /r/ is consistently [ɹ] - this confusion does not happen, and the flapped [ɾ] is considered an allophone of /t/ and /d/ rather than a rhotic sound.
    • Intervocalic T and D flapping is frequent (but not universal) in dialectal and mesolectal speech, but rare (not nonexistent though) in Standard Etrandish, other than in fast and casual speech.
  • Intervocalic lenition: For speakers of dialects that merge /ð/ with /d/ or pronounce it as a stop [d̪] - Western Etrandish, Inner Etrandish, Southern Etrandish and the Copperport dialect - , intervocalic and coda-position /b d d͡ʒ g/ may be lenited to [β ð ʒ ɣ]. Out of these, [β] has a tendency to shift to [v], while [ɣ] may be removed altogether.
    • Sometimes, speakers switch between pronouncing intervocalic /d/ as [ɾ] and [ð] without any consistency.
    • Speakers of Standard Etrandish may also exhibit lenition of intervocalic /b d d͡ʒ g/, but only in fast or casual speech, never in careful or formal speech.
  • Intervocalic T-glottalization: Some speakers pronounce intervocalic /t/ as a glottal stop [ʔ]. Once prevalent in Northern Etrand, this phenomenon is stigmatized, associated with stereotypical peasants. As of the 9th century AEKE, it is a rather rare phenomenon - even in Northern Etrand -, mostly eclipsed by either intervocalic flapping of /t d/ to [ɾ] or usage of the Standard Etrandish [tʰ].
  • Speakers of Standard Etrandish pronounce coda-position /r/ as either a velarized alveolar [ɹˠ] or retroflex [ɻ], free variation. Historically, the velarized alveolar articulation was preferred, but nowdays, the retroflex one is getting more and more popular.

Foreign accents Edit

Etrancoasti Edit

  • /ɛ œ ɔ/ are realized as true mid [e̞ ø̞ o̞], halfway between /ɛ œ ɔ/ and /e ø o/
  • /ɛː ɔː eɪ̯ øʏ̯ oʊ̯/ are realized as [ɛe̯ ou̯ ei̯ øy̯ ou̯]
  • The modally voiced stops and affricates /b d d͡ʒ g gʷ/ are completely devoiced [p t t͡ʃ k kʷ] word-initally and word-finally, but still kept distinct from their modally voiceless counterparts /p t t͡ʃ k kʷ/ , which are aspirated [pʰ tʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ kʷʰ].
    • Most speakers either soften /g gʷ/ to a continuants [ɣ w] or always pronounce them as a voiceless [k kʷ]
  • Etrancoasti-accented Etrandish is usually subject to the same variation as pure Etrancoasti is, such as the palatalization of velars before front vowels and /j/.

Artaburro Wood Elven Edit

  • /ɛː ɔː/ are raised to /eː oː/
  • The lax /ɪ ʏ ʊ/ are tensed to /i y u/
  • /œ øʏ̯/ are usually replaced by /y yː/
  • /θ/ is usually mispronounced as either [s] (Th-alveolarization) or [f] (Th-fronting)
  • /r/ is always a trill/flap [ɾ~r]. This is correct in the syllable onset, but in the syllable coda, the correct usage would the approximant [ɹ] - Artaburrans use the flapped [ɾ] in coda position too.
  • The voiceless stops are pronounced as only slightly aspirated, as opposed to the stronger aspirated that is considered correct in Etrandish
  • Final /ŋ/ is split to /ŋg/

Dragoc Wood Elven Edit

  • /ɛː ɔː/ are raised to /eː oː/
  • The lax /ɪ ʏ ʊ/ are tensed to /i ʉ/. /u/ and /y/ are merged into /ʉ/.
  • /œ øʏ̯/ are usually replaced by /ʉ ʉː/
  • /θ/ is usually mispronounced as [s] (Th-alveolarization)
  • The voiceless stops are pronounced as only slightly aspirated, as opposed to the stronger aspirated that is considered correct in Etrandish
  • /r/ and /l/ are merged and pronounced as a flapped [ɾ~ɺ]. Coda-position /r/ is usually elided and the preceding vowel is lengthened. /ər/ is replaced by [aː].
  • /s z n/ are palatalized to [ɕ ʑ ɲ] before /i/. Some speakers may palatalize /t d/ into [t͡ɕ d͡ʑ] before /i/, but this is rarer.
  • Final /ŋ/ is either merged with /n/ or extended into /ŋg/
  • /hʊ huː/ are replaced by /ɸʉ ɸʉː/

High Elven Edit

  • /ɛː/ is either lowered to [æː] or raised to [eː]
  • /ɔː/ is raised to [oː]
  • The diphthongs /eɪ̯ oʊ̯/ are replaced by long vowels /eː oː/
  • Problems with front rounded vowels:
    • The short /œ ʏ/ are usually merged with /ɛ ɪ/ or /ɔ ʊ/
    • The long /øʏ̯ yː/ usually become /eʊ̯ ɪʊ̯/
  • The schwa /ə/ is usually replaced by either [ɛ], except word-finally
  • /z/ is affricated to /d͡z/ word-initially and after nasals
  • /r/ is always a trill/flap [ɾ~r]. This is correct in the syllable onset, but in the syllable coda, the correct usage would the approximant [ɹ] - High Elves use the flapped [ɾ] in coda position too.
    • A lot of speakers may pronounce /ər/ as [aː] and/or elide coda-position Rs (non-rhotic accent). Others pronounce /ər/ as either [əɾ] or [ɛɾ], and always pronounce Rs (rhotic accent). The usage of [aː] is quite peculiar, as High Elven lacks the sound - it only has [ɑ] and [æː].
  • The voiceless stops are pronounced as only slightly aspirated, as opposed to the stronger aspirated that is considered correct in Etrandish
  • /θ/ is usually fronted to [f] (Th-fronting)
  • Final /ŋ/ is split to /ŋg/

Dark Elven Edit

  • /ɛː ɔː/ are lowered to /æː ɒː/. /ɛ ɔ/ remain unchanged.
  • The lax vowels /ɪ ʏ ʊ/ are tensed /i ɨᵝ u/
  • The front rounded /œ øː ʏ yː/ are replaced by central rounded /ɜᵝ ɘᵝː ɨᵝ ɨᵝː/. Native speakers of Etrandish can rarely tell the difference.
  • The diphthongs /eɪ̯ øʏ̯ oʊ̯/ are replaced by long monophthongs /eː ɘᵝː oː/
  • /θ/ is usually mispronounced as either [s] (Th-alveolarization) or [f] (Th-fronting)
  • /r/ is pronounced as a uvular trill/flap/fricative [ʀ~ʀ̆~ʁ]
    • A lot of speakers may pronounce /ər/ as [aː] and/or elide coda-position Rs (non-rhotic accent). Others pronounce /ər/ as [əʀ~əʀ̆~əʁ] and always pronounce Rs (rhotic accent).
  • /h/ is pronounced as a velar/uvular [x~χ]
  • /gʷ/ is usually mispronounced as [g] or [w]
  • Voiceless stops are unaspirated. Some native Etrandish-speakers may mishear these unaspirated stops for voiced stops.
  • The schwa /ə/ is often completely removed, creating new syllabic consonants or complex consonant clusters that do not exist in Etrandish.

See also Edit

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