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Language: English


Early Classical Lizardman
Extinction: evolved into Late Classical Lizardman around 9 000 BEKE
Language family: Lizardman
 Early Classical Lizardman
 
Writing system: Lizardman cuneiforms

Template:Infobox Language/IPA notice

Early Classical Lizardman was the language of the Ancient Lizardman Empire between around 15 000 BEKE and 9 000 BEKE. Many of the changes that shaped the language's evolution took palce in this period of time.

Evolution from Archaic Lizardman Edit

  • /wa ja jo ju we wi/ -> /wɒ jɛ ɥy ɥø ɥy ɥø/
  • The initial clusters /nr tʰr tr dr t͡sʰr t͡sr d͡zr sr zr/ became a new retroflex series /ɳ ʈʰ ʈ ɖ ʈ͡ʂʰ ʈ͡ʂ ɖ͡ʐ ʂ ʐ/
  • The initial clusters /nj tʰj tj dj t͡sʰj t͡sj d͡zj sj zj/ became a new palatal series /ɲ t͡ɕʰ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ ʑ/. /ŋj/ too became /ɲ/.
    • /ɥ/ too triggers palatalization, just like /j/
  • /g/ is consistently lenited to /ɣ/
  • The /kr/ cluster becomes /x/, merging with previous /h/ which also shifts to /x/
  • The /r/ initial develops into either /ɻ/ or /ʁ/ depending on the context.
    • /r/ before front vowels and /j/ becomes retroflex /ɻ/
    • /r/ before back vowels and /w/ becomes uvular /ʁ/
    • medial /r/ is dropped
    • final /r/ becomes a retroflex approximant /ɻ/
  • Final /s/ is dropped, replaced by a falling tone /˥˩/
  • Final /ʔ/ is dropped, replacing by a rising tone /˩˥/
  • /u o/ break into /w/ + /i e/ when followed by /j n ɻ t/
  • /əj/ developed into various differently depending on the initial
    • /əj/ became /ɛj/ after /ɻ/
    • /əj/ became /ej/ after other dental, retroflex and palatal consonants
    • /əj/ became /oj/ after velar consonants
    • /əj/ became /woj/ after labial consonants
  • Open-syllable /e o/ became /ei̯ ou̯/

Phonotactics Edit

  • An optional initial
  • An optional glide /j/, /w/ or /ɥ/
  • A mandatory vowel
  • An optional coda-position consonant or tone

Initials Edit

Classical Lizardman was notable for having two rhotic phonemes: a coronal /ɻ/ and a dorsal /ʁ/.

Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Plain Sibilant Plain Sibilant
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Stop Aspirated t͡sʰ ʈʰ ʈ͡ʂʰ t͡ɕʰ
Plain p t t͡s ʈ ʈ͡ʂ t͡ɕ k (ʔ)
Voiced b d d͡z ɖ ɖ͡ʐ d͡ʑ
Fricative Voiceless s ʂ ɕ x~h
Voiced z ʐ ʑ ɣ~ɦ
Approximant l ɻ j, ɥ w ʁ

Finals Edit

j w m n ŋ ◌˩˥ ◌˥˩ ɻ
a ai̯ au̯ am an ap̚ at̚ ak̚ a˩˥ a˥˩
ɒ ɒi̯ ɒu̯ ɒm ɒn ɒŋ ɒp̚ ɒt̚ ɒk̚ ɒ˩˥ ɒ˥˩ ɒɻ
ɛ ɛi̯ ɛu̯ ɛm ɛn ɛŋ ɛp̚ ɛt̚ ɛk̚ ɛ˩˥ ɛ˥˩ ɛɻ
e ei̯ eu̯ em en ep̚ et̚ ek̚ e˩˥ e˥˩
ə - əu̯ əm ən əŋ əp̚ ət̚ ək̚ ə˩˥ ə˥˩ əɻ
o oi̯ ou̯ om - op̚ - ok̚ o˩˥ o˥˩ -
ø øi̯ øu̯ øm øn øŋ øp̚ øt̚ øk̚ ø˩˥ ø˥˩ øɻ
i - iu̯ im in ip̚ it̚ ik̚ i˩˥ i˥˩
u - - um - up̚ - uk̚ u˩˥ u˥˩ -
y - - ym yn yp̚ yt̚ yk̚ y˩˥ y˥˩
  • Open-syllable /e o/ no longer existed, as they were replaced by became /ei̯ ou̯/
  • The schwa /ə/ never existed in open syllables

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